Note 3 - Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Nov. 30, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
The Company considers all highly liquid securities with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalent balances consist of bankers’ acceptances and bank accounts with variable market rates of interest.
The financial risks associated with these instruments are minimal and the Company has not experienced any losses from investments in these securities. The carrying amount of cash approximates its fair value due to its short-term nature.
As at November 30, 2018 and 2017, the Company had no cash equivalents.
The Company reviews its sales and accounts receivable aging and determines whether an allowance for doubtful accounts is required.
The Company evaluates all of its financial instruments to determine if such instruments are derivatives or contain features that qualify as embedded derivatives. For derivative financial instruments that are classified as liabilities, the derivative instrument is initially recorded at its fair value using the appropriate valuation methodology and is then re-valued at each reporting date, with changes in the fair value reported in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
(d) Investment tax credits
The investment tax credits (“ITC") receivable are amounts considered recoverable from the Canadian federal and provincial governments under the Scientific Research & Experimental Development (“SR&ED”) incentive program. The amounts claimed under the program represent the amounts based on management estimates of eligible research and development costs incurred during the year. Realization is subject to government approval. Any adjustment to the amounts claimed will be recognized in the year in which the adjustment occurs. Refundable ITCs claimed relating to capital expenditures are credited to property and equipment. Refundable ITCs claimed relating to current expenditures are netted against research and development expenditures.
Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Equipment acquired under capital leases are recorded net of imputed interest, based upon the net present value of future payments. Assets under capital leases are pledged as collateral for the related lease obligation. Repairs and maintenance expenditures are charged to operations; major betterments and replacements are capitalized. Depreciation bases and rates are as follows:
Leasehold improvements and assets acquired under capital leases are depreciated over the term of their useful lives or the lease period, whichever is shorter. The charge to operations resulting from depreciation of assets acquired under capital leases is included with depreciation expense.
Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable. For assets that are to be held and used, impairment is recognized when the sum of estimated undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset or group of assets is less than its carrying value. If impairment exists, an adjustment is made to write the asset down to its fair value, and a loss is recorded as the difference between the carrying value and fair value.
The Company previously issued warrants as described in Notes 10 and 14. In fiscal 2013, the outstanding warrants were presented as a liability because they did not meet the criteria of Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) topic 480 Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity for equity classification. Subsequent changes in the fair value of the warrants were recorded in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The Company changed its functional currency effective December 1, 2013 such that these warrants met the criteria for prospective equity classification in ASC topic 480, and the U.S. dollar translated amount of the warrant liability at December 1, 2013 became the amount reclassified to equity.
In fiscal 2013, the Company issued an unsecured convertible debenture in the principal amount of $1.5 million (the “2013 Debenture”) as described in Note 7. At issuance, the conversion option was bifurcated from its host contract and the fair value of the conversion option was characterized as an embedded derivative upon issuance as it met the criteria of ASC topic 815 Derivatives and Hedging. Subsequent changes in the fair value of the embedded derivative were recorded in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The proceeds received from the 2013 Debenture less the initial amount allocated to the embedded derivative were allocated to the liability and were accreted over the life of the 2013 Debenture using the effective rate of interest. The Company changed its functional currency effective December 1, 2013 such that the conversion option no longer met the criteria for bifurcation and was prospectively reclassified to shareholders’ equity under ASC Topic 815 at the U.S. dollar translated amount at December 1, 2013.
On September 10, 2018, the Company completed a private placement financing of an unsecured convertible debenture in the principal amount of $0.5 million (the “2018 Debenture”) as described in Note 7. At issuance, the conversion price was lower than the market share price, and the value of the beneficial conversion feature related to the 2018 Debenture was allocated to shareholders’ equity.
The Company accounts for revenue in accordance with the provisions of ASC topic 605 Revenue Recognition. The Company earns revenue from non-refundable upfront fees, milestone payments upon achievement of specified research or development, exclusivity milestone payments and licensing payments on sales of resulting products. Revenue is realized or realizable and earned when evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the price to the customer is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. From time to time, the Company enters into transactions that represent multiple-element arrangements. Management evaluates arrangements with multiple deliverables to determine whether the deliverables represent one or more units of accounting for the purpose of revenue recognition.
A delivered item is considered a separate unit of accounting if the delivered item has stand-alone value to the customer, the fair value of any undelivered items can be reliably determined, and the delivery of undelivered items is probable and substantially in the Company's control.
The relevant revenue recognition accounting policy is applied to each separate unit of accounting.
The Company recognizes revenue from the licensing of the Company's drug delivery technologies, products and product candidates. Licensing revenue is recognized as earned in accordance with the contract terms when the amounts can be reasonably estimated and collectability is reasonably assured.
The Company has a license and commercialization agreement with Par Pharmaceutical Inc. (“Par”). Under the exclusive territorial license rights granted to Par, the agreement requires that Par manufacture, promote, market, sell and distribute the product. Licensing revenue amounts receivable by the Company under this agreement are calculated and reported to the Company by Par, with such amounts generally based upon net product sales and net profit which include estimates for chargebacks, rebates, product returns, and other adjustments. Licensing revenue payments received by the Company from Par under this agreement are not subject to further deductions for chargebacks, rebates, product returns, and other pricing adjustments. Based on this arrangement and the guidance per ASC topic 605, the Company records licensing revenue as earned in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company also has a license and commercial supply agreement with Mallinckrodt LLC (“Mallinckrodt”) which provides Mallinckrodt an exclusive license to market, sell and distribute in the U.S. three drug product candidates for which the Company has ANDAs filed with the FDA. Under the terms of this agreement, the Company is responsible for the manufacture of approved products for subsequent sale by Mallinckrodt in the U.S. market, one of which (the Company’s generic Seroquel XR®) received final approval from the FDA in 2017. Following receipt of final FDA approval for its generic Seroquel XR®, the Company began shipment of manufactured product to Mallinckrodt.
Licensing revenue in respect of manufactured product is reported as revenue in accordance with ASC topic 605. Once product is sold by Mallinckrodt, the Company receives downstream licensing revenue amounts calculated and reported by Mallinckrodt, with such amounts generally based upon net product sales and net profit which includes estimates for chargebacks, rebates, product returns, and other adjustments. Such downstream licensing revenue payments received by the Company under this agreement are not subject to further deductions for chargebacks, rebates, product returns, and other pricing adjustments. Based on this agreement and the guidance per ASC topic 605, the Company records licensing revenue as earned in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The milestone method recognizes revenue on substantive milestone payments in the period the milestone is achieved. Milestones are considered substantive if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the milestone is commensurate with either the vendor’s performance to achieve the milestone or the enhancement of the value of the delivered item or items as a result of a specific outcome resulting from the vendor’s performance to achieve the milestone; (ii) the milestone relates solely to past performance; and (iii) the milestone is reasonable relative to all of the deliverables and payment terms within the arrangement. Non-substantive milestone payments that might be paid to the Company based on the passage of time or as a result of a partner’s performance are allocated to the units of accounting within the arrangement; they are recognized as revenue in a manner similar to those units of accounting.
Research and development
Under arrangements where the license fees and research and development activities can be accounted for as a separate unit of accounting, non-refundable upfront license fees are deferred and recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the expected term of the Company's continued involvement in the research and development process.
Deferred revenue represents the funds received from clients, for which the revenues have not yet been earned, as the milestones have not been achieved, or in the case of upfront fees for drug development, where the work remains to be completed. During the year ended November 30, 2016, the Company received an up-front payment of $3,000,000 from Mallinckrodt pursuant to the Mallinckrodt license and commercial supply agreement, and initially recorded it as deferred revenue, as it did not meet the criteria for recognition. For the year ended November 30, 2018, the Company recognized $300,000 (2017 - $300,000) of revenue based on a straight-line basis over the expected term of the Mallinckrodt agreement of 10 years. In 2015, the Company received an up-front payment of $150,000 from Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. which the Company recognized as revenue during the year ended November 30, 2017. As of November 30, 2018, the Company has recorded a deferred revenue balance of $2,362,500 (November 30, 2017 - $2,662,500) relating to the underlying contracts, of which $300,000 (November 30, 2017 - $300,000) is considered a current portion of deferred revenue.
Research and development costs related to continued research and development programs are expensed as incurred in accordance with ASC topic 730. However, materials and equipment are capitalized and amortized over their useful lives if they have alternative future uses.
Inventories comprise raw materials, work in process, and finished goods, which are valued at the lower of cost or market, on a first-in, first-out basis. Cost for work in process and finished goods inventories includes materials, direct labor, and an allocation of manufacturing overhead. Market for raw materials is replacement cost, and for work in process and finished goods is net realizable value. The Company evaluates the carrying value of inventories on a regular basis, taking into account such factors as historical and anticipated future sales compared with quantities on hand, the price the Company expects to obtain for products in their respective markets compared with historical cost and the remaining shelf life of goods on hand. As of November 30, 2018, the Company had raw materials inventories of $144,659 (2017 - $115,667), work in process of $73,927 (2017 - $Nil) and finished goods inventory of $33,065 (2017 - $Nil) relating to the Company’s generic Seroquel XR® product. The recoverability of the cost of any pre-launch inventories with a limited shelf life is evaluated based on the specific facts and circumstances surrounding the timing of the anticipated product launch.
The Company uses the liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under the liability method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and for losses and tax credit carry forwards. Significant judgment is required in determining whether deferred tax assets will be realized in full or in part. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the year that includes the date of enactments. A valuation allowance is provided for the portion of deferred tax assets that is more likely than not to remain unrealized.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC topic 740-10. This ASC topic requires that uncertain tax positions are evaluated in a two-step process, whereby (i) the Company determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained based on the technical merits of the position and (ii) those tax positions that meet the more likely than not recognition threshold, the Company would recognize the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs. The cumulative effects of the application of the provisions of ASC topic 740-10 are described in Note 15.
The Company records any interest related to income taxes in interest expense and penalties in selling, general and administrative expense.
Share issue costs are recorded as a reduction of the proceeds from the issuance of capital stock.
Transactions denominated in currencies other than the Company and its wholly owned operating subsidiaries’ functional currencies, monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the period end rates. Revenue and expenses are translated at rates of exchange prevailing on the transaction dates. All of the exchange gains or losses resulting from these other transactions are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The functional and reporting currency of the Company and its subsidiaries is the U.S. dollar.
The Company has a stock-based compensation plan which authorizes the granting of various equity-based incentives including stock options and restricted share units (“RSU”s). The Company calculates stock-based compensation using the fair value method, under which the fair value of the options at the grant date is calculated using the Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model, and subsequently expensed over the vesting period of the option. The provisions of the Company's stock-based compensation plans do not require the Company to settle any options by transferring cash or other assets, and therefore the Company classifies the awards as equity. Stock-based compensation expense recognized during the year is based on the value of stock-based payment awards that are ultimately expected to vest.
The Company estimates forfeitures at the time of grant and are revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The stock-based compensation expense is recorded in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss under research and development expense and under selling, general and administration expense. Note 11 provides supplemental disclosure of the Company's stock options.
Deferred Share Units (“DSU”s) are valued based on the trading price of the Company’s common shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange. The Company records the value of the DSU’s owing to non-management board members in the consolidated statement of shareholders’ equity (deficiency).
Basic loss per share (“EPS”) is computed by dividing the loss attributable to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur from common shares issuable through the exercise or conversion of stock options, restricted stock awards, warrants and convertible securities. In certain circumstances, the conversion of options, warrants and convertible securities are excluded from diluted EPS if the effect of such inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
The dilutive effect of stock options is determined using the treasury stock method. Stock options and warrants to purchase 22,540,535, 980,791 and 754,027 common shares of the Company during fiscal 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively, were not included in the computation of diluted EPS because the Company has incurred a loss for the years ended November 30, 2018, 2017 and 2016 as the effect would be anti-dilutive.
The Company follows ASC topic 220. This statement establishes standards for reporting and display of comprehensive (loss) income and its components. Comprehensive loss is net loss plus certain items that are recorded directly to shareholders' equity (deficiency). Other than foreign exchange gains and losses arising from cumulative translation adjustments, the Company has no other comprehensive loss items.
Under ASC topic 820, fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date (i.e., an exit price). ASC topic 820 establishes a hierarchy for inputs to valuation techniques used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that reflect assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company's own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability developed based on the best information available in the circumstances. There are three levels to the hierarchy based on the reliability of inputs, as follows:
The degree of judgment exercised by the Company in determining fair value is greatest for instruments categorized in Level 3.
In August 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments, which makes eight targeted changes to how cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the Statement of Cash Flows. ASU 2016-15 became effective on May 1, 2018. The Company adopted ASU 2016-15 and the amendments did not have any material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09 (“Topic 606”), Revenue from Contracts with Customers, requiring an entity to recognize the amount of revenue to which it expects to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. The updated standard will replace most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it becomes effective. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-08 to clarify the implementation guidance on considerations of whether an entity is a principal or an agent, impacting whether an entity reports revenue on a gross or net basis. In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-10 to clarify guidance on identifying performance obligations and the implementation guidance on licensing. In May 2016, the FASB issued amendments ASU No. 2016-11 and 2016-12 to amend certain aspects of the new revenue guidance (including transition, collectability, noncash consideration and the presentation of sales and other similar taxes) and provided certain practical expedients. The guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 (including interim reporting periods). Early adoption is permitted but not before the annual reporting period (and interim reporting period) beginning January 1, 2017. Entities have the option of using either a full retrospective or a modified approach to adopt the guidance. The Company anticipates that the adoption of Topic 606 will not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, which makes limited amendments to the guidance in U.S. GAAP on the classification and measurement of financial instruments. The new standard significantly revises an entity’s accounting related to (1) the classification and measurement of investments in equity securities and (2) the presentation of certain fair value changes for financial liabilities measured at fair value. It also amends certain disclosure requirements associated with the fair value of financial instruments. ASU No. 2016-01 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company anticipates that the adoption of this standard will not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
In February 2016, the FASB issued new guidance, ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The main difference between current U.S. GAAP and the new guidance is the recognition of lease liabilities based on the present value of remaining lease payments and corresponding lease assets for operating leases under current U.S. GAAP with limited exception. Additional qualitative and quantitative disclosures are also required by the new guidance. Topic 842 is effective for annual reporting periods (including interim reporting periods) beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the amendments to determine if they have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01 that changes the definition of a business to assist entities with evaluating when a set of transferred assets and activities is a business. The guidance requires an entity to evaluate if substantially all of the fair value of the gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets; if so, the set of transferred assets and activities is not a business. ASU 2017-01 also requires a business to include at least one substantive process and narrows the definition of outputs by more closely aligning it with how outputs are described in ASC 606.1. ASU 2017-01 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years. Early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of the amendments to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09 in relation to Compensation —Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Modification Accounting. The amendments provide guidance on changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award, which require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. The amendments are effective for all entities for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in any interim period, for (1) public business entities for reporting periods for which financial statements have not yet been issued and (2) all other entities for reporting periods for which financial statements have not yet been made available for issuance. The amendments should be applied prospectively to an award modified on or after the adoption date. The Company does not expect the adoption of the amendments to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef